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Chinese Traditional Kite Craft 中国传统风筝

作者录入tmx来源对外汉语学习网2019-03-06 14:00:14

Kites were invented by the Chinese people over 2000 years ago. about in the 12th century, Chinese kite spread to the West and oriental and Western kite culture was formed after years of development. In this process, the traditional culture integrated with the kite craft, and finally formed the kite culture with unique characteristics.


Uses of kite have been changed several times in history. According to historical record, kite was first used in military. In the mid Tang Dynasty (618-907), in which the society was stable and peaceful, the use of kites was gradually changed from military to entertainment. With the innovation of papermaking, the raw material of kite changed from silk to paper. Kite became popular among civilians with a richer variety of forms and reached the peak point in the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Participated by the literary, the making and the decoration of kites underwent great development. Kite making became a profession due to the large demand.

The Ming (1368-1644) and Qing dynasties,was the peak period of the Chinese kite. The kites underwent great development in size, design, decoration and flying skills. Literators at that time made kite by themselves, and sent to relatives and friends as a gift, regarding it a literary pursuit. In recent years, kite flying has publicized as a sports activity as well as entertainment.

To make a kite, first, the right kind of bamboo strips must be selected for the frame. It should be thick and strong for a kite of large dimensions in order to stand the wind pressure. The regular paper or sometime silk is used to cover the frame. Silk kites, especially, are more durable and generally of higher artistic value. Third, painting the kite may be done in each way. Kites could be generally divided into two categories: the Hard Wing and the Soft Wing. The Hard Wing can endure more air pressure and competitively fly higher, whilst the latter can fly farther, although it can not fly as high. In patterns, besides the traditional ones of animals, birds, worms, fishes, new patterns of human images emerged in modern times.

China has a large area of territory. As a traditional culture and folk art, kite has formed unique style of different regions during its development, among which the most famous ones are the styles of Beijing, Tianjin, Weifang in Shangdong Province, Sichuan and Guangdong Province.


风筝是中国人发明的距今已有2000余年的历史大约在公元12世纪中国风筝传到了西方此后经过不断发展逐渐形成各具特色的东西方风筝文化在风筝的发展过程中具有悠久历?#36820;?#20013;国传统文化开始与风筝工艺相融合将神话故事花鸟瑞兽吉祥寓意等表现在风筝上从而形成了独具地?#25945;?#33394;的风筝文化

在历史上风筝的用途曾有过多次转换根据史书记载风筝的最初功用是用于军事到了唐代公元618907年中期社会进入了繁荣稳定的发展阶段风筝的功用开始从军事用途转向娱乐同时由于纸业的发展风筝的制作材料也由丝绢转而开始使用纸张风筝逐渐走向民间类型也丰富起?#30784;?#23435;代公元9601279年风筝的流传更为广泛当时由于文人的参加风筝在扎制和装饰上都有了很大的发展同时由于社会上对风筝的需求制作风筝发展为一种专门的职业

明清时代公元13681911年是中国风筝发展的鼎盛时期明清风筝在大小样式扎制技术装饰和放飞技艺上都有了超越前代的巨大进步当时的文人?#36164;?#25166;绘风筝除?#32422;?#25918;飞外还赠送亲友并认为这是一种极为风雅的活动近年来中国的风筝事业得到了长足的发展放风筝开始作为体育运动项目和健身娱乐活动普及起?#30784;?/p>

中国风筝以细竹扎成骨架再糊以?#20132;?#32482;制作而成传统的中国风筝工艺包括"扎糊绘放"四种技艺"扎"即要达到对称使风筝左右两侧的受风面积相当"糊"即要保证整体平整干净利落"绘"即要做到远眺清楚近看真实的效果"放"即要依据风力调整提线角度风筝的种类主要分为"硬翅"和"软翅"两类"硬翅"风筝翅膀坚硬吃风大飞的高"软翅"风筝柔软飞不高但飞的远在样式上除传统的禽兽虫鱼外近代还发展出了人物风筝等新样式 中国地域辽阔风筝作为中国的传统文化和民间艺术在长期发展过程中产生出许多具有不同地域特色的种类样式和流派其中以北京天津山东潍坊四川广东所制的风筝最为著名

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